UNIX Tutorials, Tips, Tricks and Shell Scripts

File Types in Unix: Ordinary or Regular Files, Directories, Device (Special) Files, Links, Named Pipes, and Sockets

Ordinary or Regular Files

A large majority of the files found on UNIX and Linux systems are ordinary files. Ordinary files contain ASCII (human-readable) text, executable program binaries, program data, and more.


A directory is a binary file used to track and locate other files and directories. The binary format is used so that directories containing large numbers of filenames can be search quickly.


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Device (Special) Files

Device or special files are used for device I/O on UNIX and Linux systems. They appear in a file system just like an ordinary file or a directory.

On UNIX systems there are two flavors of special files for each device, character special files and block special files. Linux systems only provide one special file for each device.

When a character special file is used for device I/O, data is transferred one character at a time. This type of access is called raw device access.

When a block special file is used for device I/O, data is transferred in large fixed-size blocks. This type of access is called block device access.


A link is a tool used for having multiple filenames that reference a single file on a physical disk. They appear in a file system just like an ordinary file or a directory.

Like special files, links also come in two different flavors. There are hard links and symbolic links.

Hard links do not actually link to the original file. Instead they maintain their own copy of the original file's attributes (i.e. location on disk, file access permissions, etc.). If the original file is deleted, its data can still be accessed using the hard link.

On the other hand, symbolic links contain a pointer, or pathname, to the original file. If the original file is deleted, its data can no longer be accessed using the symbolic link, and the link is then considered to be a stale link.

Named Pipes

Named pipes are tools that allow two or more system processes to communicate with each other using a file that acts as a pipe between them. This type of communication is known as interprocess communication, or IPC for short.


Sockets are also tools used for interprocess communication. The difference between sockets and pipes is that sockets will facilitate communication between processes running on different systems, or over the network.

With so many different types of files, it's often wise to identify a file's type before performing any operation with it. The ls -l command and the file command are useful for determining file types.

Consider the long listing of the livefirelabs1 file:

-rw-rw-r-- 1 student1 student1 0 Jun 27 18:55 livefirelabs1

The first character of the first field indicates the file type. In this example, the first character is a - (hyphen) indicating that livefirelabs1 is an ordinary or regular file.

Consider the long listing of the live1 file:

lrwxrwxrwx 1 student1 student1 13 Jun 27 17:57 live1 -> livefirelabs1

The first character of the first field is the letter l indicating live1 is a symbolic link.

The following is a table listing what characters represent what types of files:

- Ordinary or Regular File
d Directory
c Character special file
b Block special file
l Symbolic link
p Named pipe
s Socket

The file command is also helpful for determining file types. The syntax for this command is:

$ file filename

If the file is an ordinary file, the file command will also indicate what the contents of the file is.

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